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Risk assessments: - At the organization level- Design Functions- Design of Architect, Interior designing, and Design of MEP

   Activities for Risk assessment The ultimate objective of risk assessment in design functions is to identify such risk occurrences, analyse these, and initiate countermeasures for preventing risks.The activities include i. Designate Risks Assessment team (CFT-Cross-functional team)ii. Identify aspects that can contribute to organization-level risk mentioned iii. Design risk assessment templates for the organization-level risk. iv. Software programming of risk templates.  v. Populating the “organization level Risks” template by the design functions in consultation with CFT 1.1 Organisation-level risks – Developing risk assessment templates  The design of the risk template ought to be comprehensive and should capture the following in a document. i)Risk statements developed by each Head of Department-HOD of the design functions i. e. Chief Architect or & Chief Interior designer or & Chief MEP engineer as applicable vis a vis the aspects such as:·       End customer’s changing needs  ·       Competitor’s offerings ·       Statutory policies·       Changes in economic, political, and social environments·       IT (Hardware, software, network) outages impacting design delivery, etc. ii) Thereafter, each risk statement is to be analyzed to capture the likely adverse impact of each risk on the organization  iii) After analysis of impact, HODs need to capture (in the same template) countermeasures, Timelines for implementation & responsibility for implementing countermeasures. This may require dialoguing/interfacing with HOD of other functions like sales, projects, purchases, and contracts, Finance & legal, IT, etc. iv) Top management comments on risk impact and countermeasures identified in the template. iii)Accordingly, categorizing the risk as High or medium, or low  1.2 Activities that can adversely impact business§  Inappropriate levels /positions of CFT members vis-à-vis “Design functions” and consequent inadequate skills for comprehending organization risks    §  Inadequate participation by a nominated member of “Design functions”             in deliberation meetings of CFT for identifying organization risks. §  Inappropriate software development and workflow of “organization level risks” template (standard for all functions) making risk capturing cumbersome and inefficient  §  Non-comprehensive review by CFT of all aspects vis-à-vis “Design functions -” that can contribute to Organisation risks in the Risk template resulting in inaccurate/non-comprehensive capturing of the following: * §  Risk statements §  Risk Analysis and implications·       Inaccurate classification by CFT of risk at the organization level (High, Medium, or Low) vis-à-vis “Design functions” due to improper risk analysis and implications *·       Inadequate time commitment by top management to review Risk template developed by CFT vis-à-vis “Design functions” and hence non-comprehensive or not accurate capturing of countermeasures *·       Non-periodic/non-timely review of previously populated risk template in “Design functions to incorporate changes in business environments like customer demands, statutory changes, economy changes, and so on *The above-listed activities, that are marked* reflect activities that can have adverse statutory implications.  Handbook of the author  You can read more about the 35 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “   Handbook of the author   A template illustrating an approach for classifying risks as High, Medium, or Low at the organization level is included in chapter 10 (annex 13C) in the handbook of the author and titled” ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “  


Designing of Façade: activities that can adversely impact business

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Design activities include design work for facades of all types, such as Aluminium, UPVC Glazing, brickwork, and stonework, metallic cladding, tiles and stone veneer panels, and pre-cast concrete panels, etc. A robust façade design should typically include aspects such as Building envelop, Building statutory codes, Performance of façade, Construction methods for proposed façade, Maintenance of façade, renderings for sales promotion/marketing purposes, cleaning system for facade   Generally, there are 5 design stages for designing façade ·       1 Develop Concept designs ·       2 Develop a Detailed design ·       3 Develop Tenders (Technical design aspects ·       4 Estimating Costs ·       5 Issuing As-built drawing Issuing as-built drawings may require using Façade design software such as Fenestra, Autodesk Revit, AutoCAD, ETAB, etc., and other software options. The below-listed activities, those marked *reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications.   Stage 1 activities that can adversely impact business   ·       Not obtaining or not incorporating inputs (like Building Envelop, Building statutory codes, Performance of façade, Construction methods for proposed façade, Maintenance of façade, Renderings for sales promotion, cleaning system for façade) from Architect, MEP, sales teams’ functions into Building Façade design ·       Using unlicensed software while developing a concept design for Façade. ·       Not vetting the concept and detailed design/making compromise while vetting Façade, in collaboration with, inhouse or outsourced Façade consultant, by skipping or compromising on essential design features and drawings aspects such as below.         ·       Tolerances on material specifications and Workmanship ·        Statutory code-related requirements for Façade *   ·       National and international standards for quality     ·        Raw Materials (hardware, glazing, stones, claddings, etc.) sizes, and specifications ·       Quality requirements and suggestive gauging ·       Façade safety requirements *    ·       Compromising on the safety of the Façade by proposing low cost /low strength raw materials   ·       Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the Façade. relevant for issuing compliance*   Stage 2 activities that can adversely impact business   ·       The design intent is not aligned with the approved concept design. ·       Façade detailed drawings are not comprehensive to include structural integrity, material selection, acoustics, etc. or are not accurate ·       Detailed design not based on supporting calculations/formula related to thermal movements, edge beam deflection, thermal expansion, structural calculations, and fire protection leading to façade safety issues*   Stage 3 activities that can adversely impact business   ·       In the tender, Façade Architect includes names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of Façade Architect in return for commission/kickback from such vendors. ·       Façade Architect recommends only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission/kickback from such vendors. * ·       Tender drawings do not incorporate applicable quality standards for all works. ·       Inspection requirements w.r.t. façade works like aluminum and glass, doors, hardware, stones, etc., are not comprehensive. ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable statutory requirements vis-a-vis applicable national/international codes w.r.t safety. *   Stage 4 activities that can adversely impact business     Computing Façade costs based on thumb rules rather than on the first principal basis vis-à-vis following, leading to underestimating or overestimating project costs. Costs of raw materials like Aluminium or UPVC or civil materials ·       Costs of doors and handles ·       Costs of hardware ·       Costs of consumables ·       Costs of equipment for cleaning /maintenance of Façade ·       Costs of fabrication ·       Costs of labor etc. ·       Costs of installation, testing, and commissioning   Stage 5 activities that can adversely impact business      ·       Façade Architect issuing “As-built drawings” for the Façade which are aligned to earlier approved drawings by Project head and statutory authorities (if applicable) but at variant, vis-à-vis actual completed physical construction (in terms of approved façade plans and construction materials used, etc.) *     Handbook of the author  You can read more about the 20 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “        


Statutory regulations -Activities that can adversely impact business -Design of Architects

For the 13 key functions applicable to the real estate & hospitality industry (as listed by the author in his book), 48 Statutory Acts have been identified as directly applicable and 34 Acts indirectly applicable through supporting functions like corporate finance, Corporate Services, HR, etc.Further, for these 13 functions, 8 types of statutory processes having 113 key statutory activities have been identified as applicable in the Indian context.For the Design of Architects function,5 types of statutory processes are directly relevant with 46 key statutory activities (out of 113 identified) are required to be performed as summarised below ·       Meeting RERA Compliances =4 ·       Meeting statutory regulations and taxation obligations =2·       Obtaining Licenses, approvals, and maintaining statutory records w.r.t Statutory Acts =24·       Complying with IGST matters =13·       Deducting Income tax on services-TDS =3The list of 46 activities mentioned above is given in the book of the author and the website https://www.ethicalprocesses.comGiven below is the list of 18 activities that can adversely impact business is as below (if these are performed without proper diligence or are unethical)Statutory Process 1: Meeting RERA Compliances related =4 key activities·       Commence construction without obtaining sanction plan approvals from competent authorities     ·       Obtain “certificate for adherence to statutory/approved sanctioned plans and project specifications and National Building code” through unfair means in case actual construction does not comply with sanctioned plans     ·       Submit inaccurate deed of declaration tabulating unit-wise areas constructed and bribing statutory agencies     ·       Bribe statutory agencies for obtaining a “completion certificate” even before construction is complete to dupe customers and realize payments through constructions areas not yet ready for possession.     Statutory Process 2: Meeting statutory regulations and tax obligations and filing various key returns on the scheduled time =4 key activities ·       Publish inaccurately on the website, project details vis-à-vis units booked, units under construction, list of approvals taken and pending, and the status of the project as prescribed in the RERA-Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act 2016  ·       Inaccurate capture of details vis-à-vis summary return of outward and inward supplies and services along with payment of tax compliance in respect of the Goods and Service Tax Act,2017.  ·       File returns inaccurately ·       File returns non-timely Statutory Process 3: Obtaining Licenses, approvals, and maintaining statutory records w.r.t Acts=4 key activities·       Commence and Continue construction without obtaining such approvals/renewals as one or more (15 sub-activities identified and listed in the book). ·       Not comply with prescribed statutory procedures and bribing Statutory officials for obtaining such licenses /approvals. ·       Bribe the statutory inspectors during their visits to the construction site, to validate those constructions conforms to statutory approvals ·       Not maintain or maintain and submit inaccurate statutory records and bribe visiting Statutory officials.   Statutory Process 4: Complying with IGST matters=5 key activities ·       Maintain record vis-à-vis inward or outward supply of local architectural services or inward supply of BOQ sample materials procured which are either incomplete or incorrect vis-à-vis amounts chargeable to GST or rate of GST or both   ·       Maintain incomplete or incorrect records vis-à-vis inward supply of overseas consultant services or inward imported supply of BOQ sample materials procured from vendors  ·       Not comply with requirements w. r. t. GST payable, collected, paid and ITC availed under GST rules for local consultants.In case of overseas consultancy services received, incorrect computation of chargeable gross invoice amount on which GST is applicable (based on the availability or non-availability of PAN with overseas consultant entity and overseas consultant’s annual billing amount to us as a client). ·       Not-Comply with requirements w. r. t maintaining details of suppliers and customers with their GSTN registration number   ·       File required returns non-timely vis-à-vis applicable sections of the Act     Statutory Process 5: Deducting TDS-services=1 key activity ·       Deduction of TDS at a rate different than prescribed for local consultants.  Handbook of the author  You can read more about the 18 key activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “    


Design of MEP -External electrical works- activities that can adversely impact business Unethical activities that can adversely impact business - Design of MEP -External electrical works

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     There are various types of packages under MEP services such as below, but not limited to: ·       Design of Electrical - external and Internal works ·       Deigning of Airconditioning -Works ·        Design of lighting works ·       Design of plumbing and water (hot and cold) supply works ·        Energy management works for green building, ·       Firefighting works ·       Designing of lifts/elevators works ·       Design of STP (sewerage treatment plant) works ·       Waste management works ·       Design of fuel storage and supply works ·       Design of solar energy works ·       Design of wind engineering works ·       Design of audio-visual works ·       Heating works ·       Ventilation & exhaust works ·       Acoustics works ·       Facility management works ·       Hospitality works like kitchen and laundry ·        IT infrastructure ·       Building automation, and so on This blog covers the Design of Electrical - external and Internal works for any type of buildings used for residential, commercial, shopping malls, education institutes, hotels, hospitals, offices, etc The author has summarised 8 design stages in this package while the Electrical works could be for any type of building. Stage A) develop a preliminary design brief and drawings Stage B) Develop detailed drawings and schemes. Stage C) Develop schematic drawings for statutory approvals Stage D) Develop a Tender with BOQ and specifications Stage E) Develop constructions drawings duly coordinated (GFC) (Stage F) Carry out and validation of design calculations (Stage G) making Cost estimates- including values in Rs and Cost/Square foot of saleable area or built up as appropriate. Stage H) Develop as-built design calculations and as-built drawings This may require using software such as AutoCAD Electrical, Smart Draw, Autodesk, Ansys, and other software options. The below-listed activities, those marked *reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications.   Stage A activities that can adversely impact business   ·       Strategic plans for design not aligned with the vision ·       Develop a non-comprehensive design brief    ·       Skipping developing all preliminary designs     Stage B activities that can adversely impact business   Making Compromises in the external and internal electrical designs by skipping or compromising on essential aspects such as below. ·       Design features External electrical works – (Diesel Generating sets, substations, High-speed diesel/fuel storage, and distribution, Electrical distribution system and backup system,  ACB-Air circuit breakers, VCB-vacuum circuit breakers, Panels, bus bars, General lighting, power layouts, and illuminations, distribution boards, switches, Fire doors, Access controls, CCTV, Public address system, telephones, building management system, MATV (Master Antenna Television system), Security system, wi-fi, Solar lighting system, inverter, UPS ·       Design features Internal electrical works (Wirings, Fixtures and fittings, Distribution system, rising mains, MS conduits, insulated conductors, Panels, etc) ·       National and international standards for quality     ·       Specifications of BOQ material ·       Tolerances on workmanship vis a vis installation and commissioning ·       Not incorporating comprehensive Quality requirements ·       Not considering comprehensive Design-related construction processes for external and internal electrical works ·       Without considering standardization leading to higher costs ·       Inaccurate Bill of quantities for each design area /no off ·       Not factoring in acceptance criteria for Electrical design work in process and completed area ·       MEP designer or consultant Insisting on specific brands of BOQ -both external electrical and internal electrical items. *  ·       Compromising specifications for developing samples in collusion with vendor/contractor* ·       Using unlicensed software while developing Electrical designs.   ·       Issuing of design and drawings to Electrical (external or internal) contractor at project site without any version control * ·       Not shredding waste designs/drawings or not deleting obsolete /old soft drawings* Stage C activities that can adversely impact business ·       Not incorporating all requirements vis a vis Statutory approval and sanctioned design/drawings* ·       Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the safety-related specifications of electrical design works relevant for issuing safety certificates * ·       Contractors influence certifying agencies for making compromising on certification in return for favors. *    Stage D activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making tenders that are not comprehensive vis-à-vis technical specifications or are deliberately stated vaguely for subsequent manipulations amongst the MEP team members and contractor with ulterior motives. *  ·       In the tender, the MEP consultant/employees /engineers include names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the BOQ materials and MEP Engineer/Architect in return for commission or kickback from such vendors. *  ·       MEP engineers recommend only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission /kickback to MEP team architects from such vendors. ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable quality standards for all works. ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable Statutory requirements vis-à-vis applicable National/International codes w.r.t safety. *    Stage E activities that can adversely impact business   ·       Making constructions drawings inaccurate by not obtaining or not incorporating inputs from interfacing functions into various design elements for MEP plans ·       Preparing coordinated drawings for each of relevant External & Internal Electrical work scope items vis designs and drawings without factoring inputs from Architect team, Interior design team ·       Using unlicensed software while developing MEP drawings      Stage F activities that can adversely impact business     ·       Validating designs without proper incorporation of all proposed connected power consumption points at different progressive loads or estimated occupancy of constructed areas or pro-rata electrical power consumption over a period   ·       Considering inaccurate proposed power factor & proposed power sanction /KVA*  ·       Inadequate vetting of design efficacy and drawings developed vis-à-vis specification of BOQ materials and installation requirements.   ·       Colluding of main MEP consultant and validating design consultant to accept the design work with incorrect design calculation in return for some favors.       Stage G activities that can adversely impact business Estimating costs based on thumb rules rather than considering detailed working vis a vis each BOQ item (e.g. Generators, ACB, VCB, Cables, Panels, Lights and fixtures, etc.), their quantity, and estimated rates based on tender documents, designs & drawings-external electrical works and internal electrical works   ·       Not considering installation, testing, and commissioning costs  Stage H activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making “As-built drawings” designs and drawings without verification of actual supply and installation of each BOQ material for external and internal electrical works*      Handbook of the author  You can read more about the 35 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “    


Interior designing -activities that can adversely impact business -

 The design of interiors work can be relevant for buildings used for residential, commercial, shopping malls, education institutes, hotels, hospitals, offices, etc. The most common core design processes in the Interior Designing function in any construction project are 9 as summarized below, while the building could be for any end-use. 1. Develop interior design plans 2. Develop and design furnishing plans of the area under the scope 3. Develop reflected ceiling plans 4. Develop floor covering plans — designs, specifications, and drawings 5. Develop mechanical, electrical, and plumbing engineering plans 6. Develop design and drawings of Interior areas 7. Develop Tender documents- developing tender documents -technical design aspects 8. Estimate Costs (BOQ+ labour+ direct construction variable costs) 9. Provide handholding support   This may require using the software as Pro’s modeling suite Max, AutoCAD, Autodesk Revit, Autodesk 3d’s, SketchUp Photoshop, and other software options In the below-listed activities, those marked *reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications.     Process 1 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Not obtaining or not incorporating strategic inputs (like the design of interiors to be traditional, modern, contemporary, etc vis a vis furniture, fixtures, finishing, target costs, target customers) and inspirational vision vis-à-vis each area to be designed as wall locations, reflected ceiling plans, Floor covering plans, finishes, Power and data plans) from various functions ·       Not involving all relevant functional teams in the vetting of the plans as mentioned above   Process 2 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Plans developed by untrained/unskilled professionals ·       Not involving all relevant functional teams in the vetting of the Plans ·       Inadequate Standardisation leading to higher costs ·       Proposing furniture and fixtures through limited pre-identified vendors with malice intent        Process 3 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making RCP non-comprehensive or inaccurate by not obtaining or not incorporating inputs from functions into various design elements (like sprinklers, smoke detectors, light fixtures, fans, and lighting plans, HVAC mounts, and any other mechanical equipment requiring special venting or electrical objects on the ceiling) for RCP. ·       Using unlicensed software while developing Interior designs.  ·       Making Compromises in the detailed RCP design process by skipping or compromising on essential aspects such as below. §  RCP design Features §   Statutory requirements. *    §  National and international standards for quality *    ·       Tolerance of BOQ material specifications and workmanship. ·       Non-comprehensive RCP design-related Construction processes ·       Inaccurate Bill of quantities for each RCP design area /no off   ·       Inadequate Standardisation leading to higher costs ·       Measurement requirements for work in process and completed Interior design areas of the project   Process 4 activities that can adversely impact business   ·       Making Floor plans non-comprehensive or inaccurate by not obtaining or not incorporating inputs from functions into various design elements for floor plans Using unlicensed software while developing Interior designs. ·       Compromising on tolerances for BOQ materials and installation based on the design of the preferred vendor or & contractor   ·       Making Compromises in the detailed Floor design process by skipping or compromising on essential aspects below. §  Floor design features §   Statutory requirements. *    §  National and international standards for quality * ·       Vague BOQ material specifications and tolerances on installation. ·       Non-comprehensive Quality requirements ·       Non-comprehensive floor design-related construction processes ·       Developing renderings which are at variant from a design developed Inadequate Standardisation leading to higher costs Inaccurate Bill of quantities for each flooring design area /no off  ·       Acceptance criteria for Interior design work in process and completed area   Process 5 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making MEP integration plans non-comprehensive or inaccurate by not obtaining or not incorporating inputs (such as power points, data points, finishing materials, etc.) from functions into various design elements for MEP plans ·       Using unlicensed software while developing designs for interiors ·       Making Compromises in the detailed design process by skipping or compromising on essential aspects such as below. Interior design Features §   Statutory requirements. *    §  National and international standards for quality *    ·       Vague BOQ material specifications and tolerances ·       Compromising on tolerances for BOQ materials based on the design of the preferred vendor ·       Non-comprehensive Quality requirements ·       Non-comprehensive design-related construction processes and potential equipment ·       Inadequate standardization leading to higher costs ·       Inaccurate Bill of quantities for each Interior design area /no off      ·       Acceptance criteria for Interior design work in process and completed area   Process 6 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Design and drawings not aligned to approved strategic plans, concept, and layouts vis a vis Internal elevation, Sections for each area, Wall finishing configurations,  Ceiling profiles, Joinery details including custom-built BOQ/items, All coordinated designs, and drawings w.r.t these design aspects.  ·       Design and drawings not comprehensive or not accurate ·       Using unlicensed software while developing Interior designs specifications and drawings ·       Developing drawings and designs which are not well coordinated leading to conflicts or rework during construction ·       Compromising specifications for the development of samples/mock-up units in collaboration with vendor/contractor ·       Using smartphones in interior design work areas to take pictures and share with competitors ·       Allowing official laptops to carry outside offices/to homes of interior designers and misusing by sharing confidential information *  ·       printing of Interior design and drawings without any control and misusing these ·       Not shredding waste designs/drawings and misuse of these ·       Allowing Liberal access to design servers/laptops and printers *    Process 7 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making tender documents non-comprehensive or inaccurate vis-à-vis the following: in tender documents.   ·       BOQ material specifications (furnishing, fixtures, and equipment, Finishing BOQ like marbles, tiles, flooring, claddings, paints, fabrics, etc.) ·       Tolerances in specifications of BOQ materials ·       Interior design-related construction processes and potential equipment ·       Standardisation ·       Bill of quantities for each Interior design area/no off ·       Interior design features in GFC drawings ·       Statutory requirements. *     ·       National and international standards for quality * ·       Measurement requirements for work in process and completed Interior design areas of the project     Process 8 activities that can adversely impact business   ·       Making cost estimates based on non-validated assumptions of BOQ material rates from vendors’ design or cost estimates from contractors. ·       Deliberately skipping a few BOQ materials from the scope of costs ·       Not considering direct labor and variable components of the cost elements while estimating costs   Process 9 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Interior designer/consultant not providing adequate inputs to project team for: §  Development of detailed specification and quality requirements §  Development of sample boards or samples for developing Interior designs. §  Selection of vendors for BOQ items  §  Inspection of interior design items.   ·       Insisting on sourcing specific brands of BOQ materials and interior design-related consultancy services from vendor and service providers respectively in collaboration with them in return for kickbacks *   Handbook of the author  You can read more about the 63 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “  


Design of Architecture : activities that can adversely impact business

Design activities include carrying out design work for all types of buildings for any purpose like residential, commercial, shopping malls, education institutes, hotels, hospitals, offices, Industrials/ factories, other engineering works, etc.The Scope of design -Architecture includes developing plans and elevations for all the superstructure architect designs for each floor, wall, and ceiling. Generally, there are 7 stages to designing building architecture as below1 Developing Concept designs2 Developing Schematic design3 Developing Sanction design duly coordinated for structure, architecture, façade, landscape, interiors, MEP, etc4 Developing /Revising detailed technical Design based on sanctioned approvals5 Developing Tenders for works such as structure, architecture, external development works, façade, landscape  6 Estimating Project Costs for structure, architecture, external development works, façade, landscape 7 Developing working drawings & Good for construction drawings, As-built drawing. This may require using software like AutoCAD, Revit Architecture (BIM),3D Studio Max, Photoshop, and other software optionsIn the activities listed below, those marked ‘*’ reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications Stage 1 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Not obtaining or not incorporating inputs (like strategic plans vis a vis vision, landscape, traffic circulation, master plans, area plans, preliminary plans, elevations, etc) into Building Civil Architecture design ·       Using unlicensed software while developing a concept design for Civil Architecture. *   ·       Not vetting the concept and detailed design/making compromises while vetting Civil Architecture, in collaboration with, inhouse or outsourced Code Architect or consultant, by skipping or compromising on important designs and drawings aspects such as below vis a vis Civil Architecture Features: ·       Tolerances on specifications of materials and workmanship·        Statutory code-related requirements for Civil Architecture. *·       National and international standards for quality ·        Raw Materials (Bricks, POP, Paints, joineries, Inserts, stone works, Tiles, Door frames, doors, windows, etc.) sizes and specifications  ·       Quality requirements and suggestive gauging·       Civil Architecture safety requirements*   ·       Compromising on the safety of Civil Architecture by proposing low cost /low strength raw materials ·       Bill of quantities for Civil Architecture ·       Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the Civil Architecture plants and elevations etc. relevant for issuing FAR and sanction drawings compliance *    Stage 2 activities that can adversely impact business·       Design intent not aligned to approved Concept design·       Schematic drawings are not comprehensive or not accurate ·       Area statements not detailed·       Cost estimates are ballpark and based on thumb rules rather than detailed assumptions.  Stage 3 activities that can adversely impact business·       Preparing drawings incorporating inaccurate area statements vis-à-vis intended construction plans and bribing the sanctioning team to get minimum non-compliance and speedy approvals * Stage 4 activities that can adversely impact business·       Colluding of the main architect with sanctioning authorities to obtain approval of the submission drawings that are not adequately coordinated or not aligned to instructions of sanctioning authorities in return for favors to approving authorities *Stage 5 activities that can adversely impact business·       In the tender, including names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the architect in return for commission/kickback to the architect from such vendors. ·       Recommending only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission /kickback to the Architect from such vendors ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable quality for all works. ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable Statutory requirements vis-à-vis applicable national/international codes w.r.t safety Stage 6 activities that can adversely impact business·       Computing costs of works for Structure, Finishes, External development, Façade, and Landscape are inaccurately based on thumb rules rather than on the first principal basis vis-à-vis TMT bars, Cement, RMC, Structural steel, Direct construction materials leading to underestimating or overestimating project costs.  Stage 7 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Develop working drawings or GFC which are not fully aligned to activities in the above seven design stages  ·       Architect issuing “As-built drawings” which are aligned to earlier sanctioned drawings by statutory authorities but at variant vis-à-vis actual completed physical construction (in terms of FAR, building plans and elevations, construction materials used, etc.) *·       Bribing the statutory officials to get ok occupation and completion certificates in due course. * Handbook of the author  You can read more about the 25 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design, and MEP services “  


Design of Structure: Activities that can adversely impact business

Designing of Building Structure: Unethical activities that can adversely impact business   Designing of building structure for any type of building includes designing columns, foundation, stilt floor, beams, slabs, retaining walls, levels, column schedules, staircases, terraces, Sewage Treatment Plant, harvesting pits, façade areas of any type of building Generally, there are 7 stages to design structure as below:- 1. Developing of Concept Design 2. Vetting of design 3. Developing GFC and specifications 4. Tender development 5. Obtaining a Structural stability certificate 6. Making Cost estimates for the entire structure 7. Issuing “As-built drawings”   This may require using software like STADD, ETAB etc. In the activities listed below, those marked ‘*’ reflect those activities which can have adverse statutory implications.   Stage 1 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Not obtaining and not incorporating inputs (like Purpose of building, Features of structure, Structural safety requirements vis-à-vis zone in which building is to be constructed, Overall dimensions and FAR, overall building Plan and elevation etc.)  from other interfacing functions like selling, architects, construction into the Structure design ·       Using unlicensed software while developing a concept design for Structure * ·       Making compromises while vetting structure design, by skipping or compromising on structure designs and drawings aspects such as below. ·       Tolerances on specifications of materials and workmanship ·        Statutory code-related requirements for Structure * ·       National and international standards for quality ·       Raw Material (TMT bars, Cement, or RMC) sizes and specifications,   the lower factor of safety*    ·       Proposing low cost /low strength raw materials   ·       Bribing mandatory Agencies which approve the structure design calculations relevant for issuing structural stability certificates*     Stage 2 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Colluding the principal architect and proof consultant to accept the consultancy design work with incorrect design calculation (e.g. TMT bars sizes and Grades like Fe415, Fe 550, RMC (M20, M30, M40 etc, Cement-OPC 43, OPC 53, PPC etc ) in return for some favours.     Stage 3 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making GFC drawings that are not aligned to design calculations   ·       Architect Insisting on specific brands of TMT bars and Cement or RMC in collaboration with vendors of brands and getting financial favours. * ·       Compromising specifications for developing samples in collaboration with vendor/contractor. ·       Releasing of design and drawings and issuing these to structure contractor at a site without any control ·       Not shredding or deleting waste designs/drawings and misuse of this     Stage 4 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Making tenders that are not comprehensive vis-à-vis technical specifications or are deliberately stated vaguely for subsequent manipulations amongst the architect and contractor with ulterior motives. ·       In the tender, the Structural Engineer/architect includes names and brands of specific materials only for pre-identified /preferred vendors of the Structural Engineer/Architect in return for commission/kickback from such vendors. * ·       Architect recommending only a single source for many BOQ materials and thus leaving very few options with the project materials team to negotiate prices aggressively in return for commission /kickback to an architect from such vendors. * ·       Inspection requirements with respect to inputs such as TMT bars, cement, RMC not comprehensive ·       Tender drawings not incorporating applicable quality standards for all works, and applicable Statutory requirements particularly w.r.t safety. *     Stage 5 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Bribing the certifying officials to get a Structural Stability Certificate in due course. *     Stage 6 activities that can adversely impact business ·       Computing costs based on thumb rules rather than the first principal basis vis a vis costs of TMT bars, Cost of Cement, Cost of RMC, and other structural elements relevant as also costs of shuttering, cost of scaffolding, costs of joinery etc. and cost of labour/fabrication for each part of the structure, floor wise and each building.   Stage 7 activities that can adversely impact business     ·       Preparing “As-built drawings” shown as aligned to Structure Stability certificate, but actual physical construction of the built-up structure is in deviation to the “as-built drawings” in terms of TMT Bar sizes, RMC, safety factor and construction materials used etc.       You can read more about the 29 activities that can adversely impact business in Chapter 1 of my handbook ETHICS in the real estate and hospitality industry, Volume 1- Architectural, Interior design and MEP services “    


Ethics in design functions in real estate and hospitality service - An overview

Welcome to the blog on Ethical Processes in BusinessThe word “ethics” refers to the moral principles or values that enable us to do the right things. In a broader sense, ethics include integrity, objectivity, professional competence, confidentiality, and professional behaviour. Any compromise in ethics can lead to adverse implications for the organization. This blog is a supplement to my first book on “Ethics in the Real Estate Industry” which is expected to be launched soon. In the first volume of the book, three design functions - Architectural design, Interior design, and MEP services have been analysed from an ethical perspective. For this purpose, we have considered 91 key processes and tabulated 916 key business activities in each of three design functions that, which if not performed diligently and professionally, can hurt the organization Type of activities Design of Architect Design of Interiors Design of MEP Combined for 3 functions Core activities - 292 Core Design 116 63 69 248 Statutory 18 12 14 44 Subtotal 134 75 83 292   Essential supporting activities - 282 Making Configuration tables 4 4 4 12 Making master data tables 4 4 4 12 Risk assessment 47 47 47 141 Assigning access rights 39 39 39 117 Subtotal 94 94 94 282   Other supporting activities - 342 Designer's traceability 3 3 3 9 Audit trails of designer's activities 2 2 2 6 Coding schemes 14 14 14 42 Document management systems-Hard-Designs & Drawings 12 12 12 36 Document management systems-soft-Designs & drawings 8 8 8 24 Budgeting for designers 11 11 11 33 MIS/Dashboard for designers 14 14 14 42 SOP for designers 8 8 8 24 Financial approvals 16 16 16 48 Core documents 6 6 6 18 Statutory documents 7 7 7 21 Functional manuals 3 3 3 9 Similar type 3 3 3 9 Key performance indicators-Designers  7 7 7 21 Subtotal 114 114 114 342   Grand total of Activities 342 283 291 916 The adverse impacts have been categorized as any one of three types below or a combination thereof and marked as ① or ② or ③① Quality of design or quality of construction or project costs or customer satisfaction or revenue of the company as relevant.② Statutory or regulatory compliances③ Efficiency or effectiveness of the design processA comprehensive list of these activities and their impact is available in the handbook – “Ethics in the Real Estate and Hospitality Industry – Volume 1”